Although the concept of a domain name seems simple enough – using a sequence of words to identify a web address “behind the scenes” is much more action. All this happens because the domain name is not the true address of the website; rather, it serves as a mask that allows you to better remember the true address of the website.
Domain names are linked to DNS (Domain Name Assignment) servers, which are used to translate numeric addresses (known as IP addresses or Internet Protocol addresses) into words. Each site that you visit on the network, in addition to its name has a numeric IP address, which is the real address of the site on the Internet.
Each domain name must be tied to a DNS server, and this is the responsibility of the domain owner (most registrars and web hosts agree to take on this responsibility). There is no single central registry for DNS information in the world; when users enter a domain name in their browsers, then all the work of processing the request falls on the shoulders of the DNS server where the site address is located. The DNS server then provides the browser with a true IP address, of course, if it exists; otherwise, the server sends an error message or redirects the user to another location.
After the IP address has been determined, the user is able to interact with the web server to gain access to specific pages. Despite the fact that this process is specific and complex, we give here its general description:
1. The browser determines which protocol (the language client machine used to negotiate with the servers) should be used. Examples of protocols include: FTP, which in English means File Transfer Protocol, and HTTP, which translates as Hypertext Transfer Protocol.
2. The browser sends a GET request to the web server in order to find the address that was given to it. For example, when a user enters http://www.example.com/1.jpg, the browser sends the GET 1.jpg command to example.com and waits for a response. Then the server responds to the browser request. It confirms the existence of this address, finds the necessary files, runs the appropriate scripts, exchanges cookies, if necessary, and returns the results back to the browser. If the server cannot locate the file, then it sends an error message to the client.
3. The browser translates the data into HTML format and displays the results.
This process is repeated until the client browser leaves the site.
When you buy a domain name, you should be given the opportunity to edit your DNS information as often as you wish. Remember your username, as DNS servers tell users where they should go; if you need to update your DNS information and you cannot access your control panel, users will never find your website.